Consultation on tackling Invasive Non-native Species: a new enforcement regimeI am writing to invite views on a regime to enforce the EU Invasive Alien Species Regulation in England and Wales. The EU Invasive Alien Species Regulation came into force in 2015. It currently applies restrictions on 49 invasive non-native species of most concern in Europe including a ban on keeping and sale. This consultation sets out proposals for enforcing those restrictions through the use of civil and criminal penalties. It will be of relevance for businesses that import or trade in non-native species and individuals that keep them, as well as those working in zoos and aquaria and NGOs with an interest in protecting the environment from these species.
The following documents may be found on Defra’s website Consultation – 9 January 2018
We welcome your views and comments on the proposals. If you wish to obtain a
paper copy of this consultation, please contact email
To submit your consultation response please complete the consultation questionnaire provided through Citizen Space (Citizen Space is an on-line consultation tool) or alternatively please email or post your response at the address above.
Confidentiality and data protectionA summary of responses to this consultation will be published on the Government website at: DEFRA. The summary will include a list of organisations that responded but not personal names, addresses or other contact details.
Information provided in response to this consultation, including personal information, may be made available to the public on request, in accordance with the requirements of the Freedom of Information Act 2000 (FOIA) and the Environmental Information Regulations 2004 (EIRs). Defra may also publish the responses to the FOIA/EIR requests on DEFRA.
If you want information, including personal information such as your name, that you provide to be treated as confidential, please explain clearly in writing when you provide your response to the consultation why you need to keep these details confidential. If we receive a request for the information under the FOIA or the EIRs we will take full account of your explanation, but we cannot guarantee that confidentiality can be maintained in all circumstances. However, Defra will not permit any unwarranted breach of confidentiality nor will we act in contravention of our obligations under the Data Protection Act 1998 (DPA). An automatic confidentiality disclaimer generated by your IT system will not, of itself, be regarded as a confidentiality request.
Defra will share the information you provide in response to the consultation, including any personal data, with a third party of contracted external analysts for the purposes of response analysis and provision of a report.
Defra is the data controller in respect of any personal data that you provide, and Defra’s Personal Information Charter, which gives details of your rights in respect of the handling of your personal data, can be found at: PERSONAL INFORMATION CHARTER
This consultation is being conducted in line with the “Consultation Principles” as set out in the Better Regulation Executive guidance which can be found at: CONSULTATION GUIDANCE
If you have any comments or complaints about the consultation process, please address them to:
Consultation Co-ordinator 8A
8th Floor, Nobel House 17 Smith Square, London, SW1P 3JR.
Normally drones develop from unfertilized eggs and are haploid. Diploid drones (called also “biparental males”) develop from fertilized eggs  which are homozygous at sex locus. In nature diploid drones do not survive until the end of larval development. The larvae of diploid drones are eaten by workers  within few hours after hatching from egg  despite the fact that they are viable .
Adult (imago) diploid drones can be reared in laboratory by hatching eggs in incubator and feeding larvae with royal jelly without workers . The larva can be transferred to colony after 2-3 days. At this age workers feed them normally. Diploid drones can be reared also in autumn in mating nuclei with about 1000 workers .
Externally adult diploid drones are similar to haploid drones. In comparison to haploid drones diploid once are larger, heavier  but see , have smaller testes , fewer testicular tubules , fewer wing hooks  and lower vitellogenin concentration . Diploid drone larvae produce more cuticular hydrocarbons than workers but less than haploid drones  but see .
Diploid drones produce diploid spermatozoa  containing twice as much DNA as haploid spermatozoa . Diploid spermatozoa are longer than haploid spermatozoa; their head is particularly long . Ultrastructure of haploid and diploid drones is similar . In theory triploid honey bees can be obtained by inseminating queen with diploid spermatozoa , however, this was not achieved so far because of small number of sperm produced by diploid drones.
Workers recognize the diploid drones larvae using substances present at their bodies . It was suggested that diploid drones produce pheromone called “cannibalism substance” which is a signal to workers that they should be destroyed  see also . Such self-destructive behaviour of diploid drones can evolve because they are neither able to reproduce nor help their relatives. Eating of the diploid drones at early stage of larval development allows to save valuable resources and produce bigger number of their relatives. However, no cuticular compound specific for diploid drone larvae was found . First instar larvae of haploid and diploid drones differ in relative amount of cuticular compounds  and the difference can be used by workers for detection of diploid drones. In older larvae the differences in cuticular compounds are smaller .
In natural conditions frequency of diploid drones (before destruction by workers) in a colony is 0.05±0.03 (mean±SD) . The frequency can be much higher in case of inbreeding. In colonies with large proportion of diploid drones there is “shot brood” – brood of different ages scattered irregularly on a comb . Multiple mating by the queen leads to reduced variance of proportion of diploid drones present in the colony . When a queen is artificially inseminated with semen of one drone which is her brother, half of her female offspring develop into diploid drones .
Other references: 
2pm Sunday 22 April 2018
at the Lecture Theatre Writtle University College CM1 3RP
This year’s guest speakers are:
Professor Richard Pywell
Richard is the Senior Principal Scientist at the NERC Centre for Ecology & Hydrology. He will talk about his research supporting wildflowers boosting natural predators widely published in the national press at the end of January and the Honey Monitoring Scheme researching neonicotinoids in honey.
Norman is the Science Director at the International Bee Research Association (IBRA) based at Sussex University and he will talk about the work of the IBRA and, in particular, about the founder, Eva Crane.
This is the third Ted Hooper Memorial lecture which is an important event in the beekeeping calendar. Members again will have the opportunity to hear the presentations from key speakers on topics that are of interest and relevant today. It is also a good opportunity to catch up with old friends and meet in the new surroundings at Writtle University College.
The ticket price, including refreshments, is £10 and must be purchased in advance.