Maldon Beekeepers Blog

Consultation – DEFRA – Invasive species

Wildlife Team Horizon House Deanery Road Bristol
BS1 5AHEmailDear Consultee

DEFRA website

Consultation on tackling Invasive Non-native Species: a new enforcement regimeI am writing to invite views on a regime to enforce the EU Invasive Alien Species Regulation in England and Wales. The EU Invasive Alien Species Regulation came into force in 2015. It currently applies restrictions on 49 invasive non-native species of most concern in Europe including a ban on keeping and sale. This consultation sets out proposals for enforcing those restrictions through the use of civil and criminal penalties. It will be of relevance for businesses that import or trade in non-native species and individuals that keep them, as well as those working in zoos and aquaria and NGOs with an interest in protecting the environment from these species.

The following documents may be found on Defra’s website
Consultation – 9 January 2018

 Consultation document.
We welcome your views and comments on the proposals. If you wish to obtain a

paper copy of this consultation, please contact email

 

Responses

To submit your consultation response please complete the consultation questionnaire provided through Citizen Space (Citizen Space is an on-line consultation tool) or alternatively please email or post your response at the address above.

  1. Responses should be received by 3 April 2018.
  2. This is a twelve week consultation.

Consultation Criteria

This consultation is in line with the Consultation Principles. This can be found at Cabinet Office resources

Confidentiality and data protectionA summary of responses to this consultation will be published on the Government website at: DEFRA. The summary will include a list of organisations that responded but not personal names, addresses or other contact details.

Information provided in response to this consultation, including personal information, may be made available to the public on request, in accordance with the requirements of the Freedom of Information Act 2000 (FOIA) and the Environmental Information Regulations 2004 (EIRs). Defra may also publish the responses to the FOIA/EIR requests on DEFRA.

If you want information, including personal information such as your name, that you provide to be treated as confidential, please explain clearly in writing when you provide your response to the consultation why you need to keep these details confidential. If we receive a request for the information under the FOIA or the EIRs we will take full account of your explanation, but we cannot guarantee that confidentiality can be maintained in all circumstances. However, Defra will not permit any unwarranted breach of confidentiality nor will we act in contravention of our obligations under the Data Protection Act 1998 (DPA). An automatic confidentiality disclaimer generated by your IT system will not, of itself, be regarded as a confidentiality request.

Defra will share the information you provide in response to the consultation, including any personal data, with a third party of contracted external analysts for the purposes of response analysis and provision of a report.

Defra is the data controller in respect of any personal data that you provide, and Defra’s Personal Information Charter, which gives details of your rights in respect of the handling of your personal data, can be found at: PERSONAL INFORMATION CHARTER

This consultation is being conducted in line with the “Consultation Principles” as set out in the Better Regulation Executive guidance which can be found at: CONSULTATION GUIDANCE

If you have any comments or complaints about the consultation process, please address them to:

  • Consultation Co-ordinator 8A
    8th Floor, Nobel House 17 Smith Square, London, SW1P 3JR.

Or email: CONSULTATION CO-ORDINATOR

Thank you for your help in this matter. If you have any queries, please contact us as above.

Yours faithfully
Invasive Alien Species team
EMAIL
Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs

 

 

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Diploid Drones……. you said what?

Source: Honey Bee
Date:   19 March 2018

Normally drones develop from unfertilized eggs and are haploid. Diploid drones (called also “biparental males”) develop from fertilized eggs [1][2] which are homozygous at sex locus. In nature diploid drones do not survive until the end of larval development. The larvae of diploid drones are eaten by workers [3] within few hours after hatching from egg [4] despite the fact that they are viable [5][6].

Adult (imago) diploid drones can be reared in laboratory by hatching eggs in incubator and feeding larvae with royal jelly without workers [7][8]. The larva can be transferred to colony after 2-3 days. At this age workers feed them normally. Diploid drones can be reared also in autumn in mating nuclei with about 1000 workers [9].

Externally adult diploid drones are similar to haploid drones. In comparison to haploid drones diploid once are larger, heavier [10][11][12] but see [13][14], have smaller testes [15][14], fewer testicular tubules [16], fewer wing hooks [14] and lower vitellogenin concentration [14]. Diploid drone larvae produce more cuticular hydrocarbons than workers but less than haploid drones [17] but see [18].

Drone - side view - Adam Tofilski www.honeybee.drawwing.org

Diploid drones produce diploid spermatozoa [19] containing twice as much DNA as haploid spermatozoa [20][14]. Diploid spermatozoa are longer than haploid spermatozoa; their head is particularly long [21]. Ultrastructure of haploid and diploid drones is similar [22]. In theory triploid honey bees can be obtained by inseminating queen with diploid spermatozoa [21], however, this was not achieved so far because of small number of sperm produced by diploid drones.

Workers recognize the diploid drones larvae using substances present at their bodies [23]. It was suggested that diploid drones produce pheromone called “cannibalism substance” which is a signal to workers that they should be destroyed [23] see also [24]. Such self-destructive behaviour of diploid drones can evolve because they are neither able to reproduce nor help their relatives. Eating of the diploid drones at early stage of larval development allows to save valuable resources and produce bigger number of their relatives. However, no cuticular compound specific for diploid drone larvae was found [17]. First instar larvae of haploid and diploid drones differ in relative amount of cuticular compounds [17] and the difference can be used by workers for detection of diploid drones. In older larvae the differences in cuticular compounds are smaller [14].

In natural conditions frequency of diploid drones (before destruction by workers) in a colony is 0.05±0.03 (mean±SD) [25]. The frequency can be much higher in case of inbreeding. In colonies with large proportion of diploid drones there is “shot brood” – brood of different ages scattered irregularly on a comb [26][27][28][29]. Multiple mating by the queen leads to reduced variance of proportion of diploid drones present in the colony [30]. When a queen is artificially inseminated with semen of one drone which is her brother, half of her female offspring develop into diploid drones [26].

Reviews: [31][32]
Other references: [33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42]

 

References

  1. Woyke J., Knytel A. (1966) The chromosome number as proof that drones can arise from fertilized eggs of the honeybee. Journal of Apicultural Research 5:149–154.
  2. Woyke J., Knytel A., Bergandy K. (1966) The presence of spermatozoa in eggs as proof that drones can develop from inseminated eggs of the honeybee. Journal of Apicultural Research 5:71–78.
  3. Woyke J. (1963) What happens to diploid drone larvae in a honeybee colony. J. Apic. Res. 2:73-75.
  4. Woyke J. (1962) The hatchability of “lethal” eggs in a two sex allele fraternity of honeybees. J. Apic. Res. 1:6-13.
  5. Woyke J. (1963) Rearing and viability of diploid drone larvae. J. Apic. Res. 2:77–84.
  6. Woyke J. (1965) Study on the comparative viability of diploid and haploid larval drone honeybees. Journal of Apicultural Research 4:12–16.
  7. Woyke J. (1969) A method of rearing diploid drones in a honeybee colony. J. Apic. Res. 8:65-74.
  8. Woyke J. (1969) Rearing diploid drones on royal jelly or bee milk. Journal of Apicultural Research 8:169-173.
  9. Polaczek B., Neumann P., Schricker B., Moritz R.F.A. (2000) A new, simple method for rearing diploid drones in the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.). Apidologie 31:525–530.
  10. Woyke J. (1977) Comparative biometrical investigation on diploid drones of the honeybee. I. The head. J. Apic. Res 16:131–142.
  11. Woyke J. (1978) Comparative biometrical investigation on diploid drones of the honeybee. II. The thorax. Journal of Apicultural Research 17:195–205.
  12. Woyke J. (1978) Comparative biometrical investigation on diploid drones of the honeybee. III. The abdomen and weight. J. Apic. Res 17:206–217.
  13. Chaud-Netto J. (1975) Sex determination in Bees. II. Additivity of maleness genes in Apis mellifera. Genetics 79:213-217.
  14. Herrmann M., Trenzcek T., Fahrenhorst H., Engels W. (2005) Characters that differ between diploid and haploid honey bee (Apis mellifera) drones. Genet. Mol. Res. 4:624-641.
  15. Woyke J. (1974) Genic balance, heterozygosity and inheritance of testis size in diploid drone honeybees. Journal of Apicultural Research 13:77–85.
  16. Woyke J. (1973) Reproductive organs of haploid and diploid drone honeybees. J. Apic. Res. 12:35-51.
  17. Santomauro G., Oldham N.J., Boland W., Engels W. (2004) Cannibalism of diploid drone larvae in the honey bee (Apis mellifera) is released by odd pattern of cuticular substances. Journal of Apicultural Research 43:69–74.
  18. Bienefeld K., Mattausch A., Möller U., Pritsch G. (1994) Ursache von Kannibalismus bei Arbeiterinnen der Honigbiene (Apis mellifera L.) an diploider Drohnenbrut. Verhandlungen der Deutschen Zoologischen Gesellschaft 87:30.
  19. Woyke J., Skowronek W. (1974) Spermatogenesis in diploid drones of the honeybee. Journal of Apicultural Research 13:183–190.
  20. Woyke J. (1975) DNA content of spermatids and spermatozoa of haploid and diploid drone honeybees. Journal of Apicultural Research 14:3–8.
  21. Woyke J. (1983) Lengths of haploid and diploid spermatozoa of the honeybee and the question of the production of triploid workers. J Apic Res 22:146-149.
  22. Woyke J. (1984) Ultrastructure of single and multiple diploid honeybee spermatozoa. Journal of Apicultural Research 23:123–135.
  23. Woyke J. (1967) Diploid drone substance–cannibalism substance., Proc. XXI Int. Beekeeping Congr., Maryland, pp. 471–472.
  24. Dietz A., Lovins R.W. (1975) Studies on the ‘cannibalism substance’ of diploid drone honey bee larvae. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society 10:314-315.
  25. Adams J., Rothman E.D., Kerr W.E., Paulino Z.L. (1977) Estimation of the number of sex alleles and queen matings from diploid male frequencies in a population of Apis mellifera. Genetics 86:583-596.
  26. Mackensen O. (1951) Viability and sex determination in the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.). Genetics 36:500-509.
  27. Laidlaw H.H., Gomes F.P., Kerr W.E. (1956) Estimation of the number of lethal alleles in a panmitic population of Apis mellifera L. Genetics 41:179-188.
  28. Hachinohe Y., Jimbu M. (1958) Occurrence of lethal eggs in the honeybee. Bull. Natl. Inst. Agric. Sci. Ser. G 14:123–130.
  29. Woyke J. (1984) Exploitation of comb cells for brood rearing in honeybee colonies with larvae of different survival rates. Apidologie 15:123-135.
  30. Ratnieks F.L.W. (1990) The evolution of polyandry by queens in social Hymenoptera: the significance of the timing of removal of diploid males. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 26:343-348.
  31. Woyke J. (1974) The story of diploid drones in the honeybee., Bee Research Association, 1949-1974: a history of the first 25 years. Bee Research Association, pp. 151-154.
  32. Woyke J. (1986) Sex determination. in: Rinderer T.E. (Ed.), Bee genetics and breeding. Academic Press, Orlando, pp. 91-119.
  33. Woyke J. (1963) Origin of unusual bees [in Polish]. Pszczelnicze Zeszyty Naukowe 6:49-63.
  34. Woyke J. (1963) Drones from fertilized eggs and biology of sex determination in the honeybee. Bull. Acad. Polon. Sci. Cl. V. Serie des Sciences Biologiques 9:251-254.
  35. Woyke J. (1963) Drone larvae from fertilized eggs of the honeybee. Journal of Apicultural Research 2:19–24.
  36. Woyke J. (1965) Genetic proof of the origin of drones from fertilized eggs of the honeybee. Journal of Apicultural Research 4:7–11.
  37. Woyke J. (1965) Do honeybees eat diploid drone larvae because they are in worker cells? J Apic Res 4:65–70.
  38. Woyke J. (1965) Rearing diploid drone larvae in queen cells in a colony. Journal of Apicultural Research 4:143–148.
  39. Woyke J. (1980) Genetic background of sexuality in the diploid drone honeybee. Journal of Apicultural Research 19:89–95.
  40. Woyke J., Adamska Z. (1972) The biparental origin of adult honeybee drones proved by mutant genes. Journal of Apicultural Research 11:41–49.
  41. Woyke J. (1973) Laranja: a new honey bee mutation. Gene dosage and maleness of diploid drones. Journal of Heredity 64:227-230.
  42. Woyke J., Król-Paluch W. (1985) Changes in tissue polyploidization during development of worker, queen, haploid and diploid drone honeybees. Journal of Apicultural Research 24:214–224.

 

 

 

Ted Hooper Memorial Lectures 2018

Ted Hooper Memorial Lectures 2018

Where / When

2pm Sunday 22 April 2018
at the Lecture Theatre Writtle University College CM1 3RP

Speakers

This year’s guest speakers are:

Professor Richard Pywell

Richard is the Senior Principal Scientist at the NERC Centre for Ecology & Hydrology. He will talk about his research supporting wildflowers boosting natural predators widely published in the national press at the end of January and the Honey Monitoring Scheme researching neonicotinoids in honey.

Norman Carreck

Norman is the Science Director at the International Bee Research Association (IBRA) based at Sussex University and he will talk about the work of the IBRA and, in particular, about the founder, Eva Crane.

This is the third Ted Hooper Memorial lecture which is an important event in  the beekeeping calendar. Members again will have the opportunity to hear the presentations from key speakers on topics that are of interest and relevant today. It is also a good opportunity to catch up with old friends and meet in the  new surroundings at Writtle University College.

 

The ticket price, including refreshments, is £10 and must be purchased in  advance.

Buy Tickets here

Beekeeping Taster Workshops a hit

Two Beekeeping Taster Workshop have been a huge success with 18 would be Beekeepers trying it out, including handling live bees.

Students listening to talk on Kit and Costs involved with beekeeping over tea and cake.

A nervous youngster looking over Darren's shoulder.

Looking at a frame of bees with Apiary Manager, Darren.

Opening hive looking for a queen with apiarist Kate.

One of the younger Beekeepers, Amy, was nervous and not keen about handling bees, yet here she is holding a frame and smiling from ear to ear.

A frame full of bees

Labelling Jarred Honey

Two Beekeeping Taster Workshop have been a huge success with 18 would be Beekeepers trying it out, including handling live bees.

Students listening to talk on Kit and Costs involved with beekeeping over tea and cake.

A nervous youngster looking over Darren’s shoulder.

Looking at a frame of bees with Apiary Manager, Darren.

Opening hive looking for a queen with apiarist Kate.

One of the younger Beekeepers, Amy, was nervous and not keen about handling bees, yet here she is holding a frame and smiling from ear to ear.

A frame full of bees